Hidden Truths

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Crowds flee British army attack as they run across the Rossville Flats car park seeking shelter.

Photograph by Robert White


Courtesy of The Art Gallery, University of Maryland

Anglo-Irish Agreement (AIA)
(Sometimes referred to as the Hillsborough Agreement)
Signed in November 1985 by the British and Irish (Dublin) governments to give the Republic of Ireland a voice in the affairs of Northern Ireland. Strongly condemned by Unionists in the North and by the IRA. Strong support in N.I. from the moderate nationalists and a few liberal Unionists. Official Unionist and Democratic Unionist MPs resigned their seats in the House of Parliament in protest (and ran for re-election). Unionists and DUP members of local councils in N.I. boycotted council meetings. A "joint secretariat" of officials from the British and Irish governments meets in Belfast on a regular basis.

Apprentice Boys
An organization of Protestant men in Derry who gather on August 12 to march in celebration of the occasion of the defense of the city in the siege of 1689, when thirteen apprentice boys closed the gates of the city to the army of Catholic King James II.

Police reserve force, made up almost entirely of Protestants; disbanded in 1971.

Battle of the Bogside
Riots that erupted in the Bogside of Derry in August 1969 after the Apprentice Boys Parade through the city. As a result of the rioting, British troops were called in to Northern Ireland.

Catholic, nationalist neighborhood of Derry.

The Parliament for the Republic of Ireland (pronounced "doil").

Irish for "Ireland" (pronounced "aira").

Home Rule
A political movement that sought the governing of Northern Ireland by an Irish Parliament rather than by Britain in the 1870s and 1880s.

The Irish Republican Army, known since its break with the Official IRA in 1970 as the Provisional IRA, the Provos, the Provies, or simply as the IRA.

July 12
Annual Protestant celebration commemorating the defense of Londonderry against the siege of Catholic King James II in 1689.

Staunch Protestants who want to see Northern Ireland remain loyal to the British crown; it is a general description, not a political party.

One in Northern Ireland who desires unity with the Republic of Ireland.

Orange Order
The largest Protestant organization in Northern Ireland, founded in 1795. Its announced objectives are to defend the Protestant succession to the British throne, and to preserve the civil and religious liberty of the Protestants.

Paisley, Ian
Co-founder and leader of the DUP, Member of Parliament for North Antrim, founder of the Free Presbyterian Church. Controversial and charismatic Protestant leader in Northern Ireland for four decades. Rabidly anti-Catholic.

Derogatory term for Protestant.

Royal Ulster Constabulary.

Catholic nationalists whose aims are a united Ireland and the end of British rule and occupation in Northern Ireland.

Social Democratic and Labour Party lead by John Hume.

Sands, Bobby
The first IRA prisoner to die in the 1981 hunger strikes. From April to May 1981, he served from prison as a Member of Parliament (Westminster) from Fermanagh and S. Tyrone.

Six-wheeled armored vehicle.

Slang for prison guard.

Sinn Féin
"Ourselves Alone," the political wing of the IRA.

The seat of government in Northern Ireland, five miles outside of Belfast, a palace that is a heavily guarded complex of office buildings and official apartments.

Derogatory slang term for Catholic; derived from the Irish form of "Timothy" (pronounced "Tige," as in tiger).

The Republic of Ireland flag of green, orange, and white; the white was meant to signify the peace between the Catholics (green) and the Protestants (orange).

The name commonly applied to Northern Ireland, but strictly the designation of the historic nine-county province of Ireland that includes not only the six in Northern Ireland but also three counties in the Republic as well: Monaghan, Cavan, and Donegal.

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